Diabetes affects oocyte nuclear and cytoplasmic quality. In this study, we generated a type 1 diabetes (T1D) mouse model by STZ injection to study the effects of T1D on zona pellucida and genomic DNA methylation of oocytes and granulosa cells. T1D mice showed fewer ovulated oocytes, reduced ovarian reserve, disrupted estrus cycle, and significantly ruptured zona pellucida in 2-cell in vivo embryos compared to controls. Notably, diabetic oocytes displayed thinner zona pellucida and treatment of oocytes with high concentration glucose reduced the zona pellucida thickness. Differential methylation genes in oocytes and granulosa cells were analyzed by methylation sequencing. These genes were significantly enriched in GO terms by GO analysis, and these GO terms were involved in multiple aspects of growth and development. Most notably, the abnormal methylation genes in oocytes may be related to oocyte zona pellucida changes in diabetic mice. These findings provide novel basic data for further understanding and elucidating dysgenesis and epigenetic changes in type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: DNA methylation; Diabetes; Oocyte; Zona pellucida.
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