Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 9 (10)

The Neuroprotective Effects of Melatonin: Possible Role in the Pathophysiology of Neuropsychiatric Disease


The Neuroprotective Effects of Melatonin: Possible Role in the Pathophysiology of Neuropsychiatric Disease

Jung Goo Lee et al. Brain Sci.

Erratum in


Melatonin is a hormone that is secreted by the pineal gland. To date, melatonin is known to regulate the sleep cycle by controlling the circadian rhythm. However, recent advances in neuroscience and molecular biology have led to the discovery of new actions and effects of melatonin. In recent studies, melatonin was shown to have antioxidant activity and, possibly, to affect the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, melatonin has neuroprotective effects and affects neuroplasticity, thus indicating potential antidepressant properties. In the present review, the new functions of melatonin are summarized and a therapeutic target for the development of new drugs based on the mechanism of action of melatonin is proposed.

Keywords: antidepressant; antioxidant; melatonin; neuroprotective effect; oxydative stress.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Chemical structure of melatonin.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Synthesis of melatonin.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of melatonin. BBB: blood–brain barrier.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 1 article


    1. Amaral F.G.D., Cipolla-Neto J. A brief review about melatonin, a pineal hormone. Arch. Endocrinol. Metab. 2018;62:472–479. doi: 10.20945/2359-3997000000066. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Carretero M., Escames G., López L.C., Venegas C., Dayoub J.C., García L., Acuña-Castroviejo D. Long-term melatonin administration protects brain mitochondria from aging. J. Pineal Res. 2009;47:192–200. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-079X.2009.00700.x. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Hardeland R. Melatonin metabolism in the central nervous system. Curr. Neuropharmacol. 2010;8:168–181. doi: 10.2174/157015910792246164. - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Pandi-Perumal S.R., Srinivasan V., Maestroni G.J., Cardinali D.P., Poeggeler B., Hardeland R. Melatonin: Nature’s most versatile biological signal? FEBS J. 2006;273:2813–2838. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2006.05322.x. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Williams W.P., 3rd, McLin D.E., 3rd, Dressman M.A., Neubauer D.N. Comparative Review of Approved Melatonin Agonists for the Treatment of Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders. Pharmacotherapy. 2016;36:1028–1041. doi: 10.1002/phar.1822. - DOI - PMC - PubMed