Periodontal disease is clearly correlated with systemic disease. The presence of periodontal pathogens in interdental spaces in young, healthy adults is a strong indicator of the need to introduce daily interdental prophylaxis. Twenty-five subjects (aged 18-35 years), diagnosticated clinically as periodontally healthy, were enrolled in this study. One hundred interdental sites were included. Among these sites, 50 "test" sites were cleaned daily with calibrated interdental brushes (IDBs), whereas the other 50 sites were not cleaned and considered "controls". The interdental biofilm at these interdental sites was collected at the beginning of the study (basal) and at 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, and 3 months. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology was used to quantify (i) 19 periodontal bacteria, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia, and (ii) total bacteria. In the test sites, the quantity of total bacteria decreased over time with the use of IDBs. The bacteria from the red and orange Socransky complexes, which are associated with periodontal disease, significantly decreased in the test sites but not in the control sites. Bacteria from the yellow, and purple Socransky complexes, which are associated with periodontal health, increased significantly in both groups whereas bacteria from the blue Socransky complex increased significantly only in the test sites. Furthermore, at basal, 66% of test sites and 68% of control sites bled during interdental brushing. These percentages decreased by 85% in 3 months for the test sites and by 27% in the control sites. In conclusion, the daily use of calibrated IDBs can reduce periodontal pathogens, reestablish symbiotic microbiota and, decrease interdental inflammation in interdental sites of healthy young adults.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare no competing interests.
Quantitative Molecular Detection of 19 Major Pathogens in the Interdental Biofilm of Periodontally Healthy Young Adults.Front Microbiol. 2016 Jun 2;7:840. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00840. eCollection 2016. Front Microbiol. 2016. PMID: 27313576 Free PMC article.
Access to Interdental Brushing in Periodontal Healthy Young Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.PLoS One. 2016 May 18;11(5):e0155467. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155467. eCollection 2016. PLoS One. 2016. PMID: 27192409 Free PMC article.
Real-time PCR quantification of 9 periodontal pathogens in saliva samples from periodontally healthy Korean young adults.J Periodontal Implant Sci. 2018 Aug 30;48(4):261-271. doi: 10.5051/jpis.2018.48.4.261. eCollection 2018 Aug. J Periodontal Implant Sci. 2018. PMID: 30202609 Free PMC article.
Interdental brushing for the prevention and control of periodontal diseases and dental caries in adults.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Dec 18;(12):CD009857. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009857.pub2. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013. PMID: 24353078 Updated. Review.
Dental plaque revisited: bacteria associated with periodontal disease.J N Z Soc Periodontol. 2004;(87):7-21. J N Z Soc Periodontol. 2004. PMID: 15143484 Review.