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, 11 (8), e5454

Prevalence of Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy in Chronic Liver Disease and Correlation With the Severity of Liver Disease

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Prevalence of Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy in Chronic Liver Disease and Correlation With the Severity of Liver Disease

Pratap S Tiwari et al. Cureus.

Abstract

Background Portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) is an underappreciated condition in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). It is a common endoscopic finding in CLD patients, but its relation with esophageal varices (EV) and the severity of the liver disease is controversial. Herein, we aimed to study the prevalence of PHG in CLD patients and to determine its association with EV and the severity of the liver disease. Methods This descriptive, cross-sectional, analytical study was conducted at the Hepatology department, Bir Hospital Kathmandu from 19th March to 30th June 2019. A total of 404 patients with CLD of various etiology fulfilling the inclusion criteria were approached, and informed consent was taken before enrolling in the study. All patients underwent EGD, and the findings related to EV and PHG were noted. The severity of PHG was graded according to the McCormack classification and EV were graded according to the American Association for the study of liver diseases guideline. The severity of liver disease was stratified based on Child-Pugh class and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score). Data was entered on Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 25 for further analysis. Results Of 404 CLD patients, the mean (±SD) age was 49.14 (±10.5) years. Portal hypertensive gastropathy was observed in 269 (66.6%) patients, of which 80.6% (217) had mild PHG while 19.4% (52) had severe PHG. EV were present in 362 (89.6%) patients. One hundred and thirty-two (36.5%) had small EV, and 230 (63.5%) had large EV. No significant association was observed between grades of gastropathy and size of varices (p = 0.36). There was a non-significant association with the MELD score and other biochemical parameters. However, there were significant associations between Child-Pugh class and PHG and Child-Pugh class and PHG severity, p = 0.001 and p = 0.01 (p <0.05), respectively. Conclusions In our study, the prevalence of PHG in the Nepalese population in CLD is 66.6 %. PHG is significantly associated with the severity of CLD in terms of Child-Pugh class but not associated with MELD. Also, no association has been found with the size of varices.

Keywords: chronic liver disease; cirrhosis; congestive gastropathy; esophageal varices; portal hypertensive gastropathy.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. Mild PHG showing reticular cobblestone pattern of gastric mucosa (blue arrows)
PHG, portal hypertensive gastropathy
Figure 2
Figure 2. Severe PHG as discrete red spots and diffuse hemorrhagic lesion (blue arrows)
PHG, portal hypertensive gastropathy
Figure 3
Figure 3. Prevalence of portal hypertensive gastropathy according to the Child-Pugh class

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