Hyperuricemia Associated with Thiazide Diuretics in Hypertensive Adults

Cureus. 2019 Aug 22;11(8):e5457. doi: 10.7759/cureus.5457.


Introduction Thiazide diuretics are essential first-line anti-hypertensive drugs which not only maintain blood pressure but also reduce stroke and congestive heart failure associated with morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients. However, thiazide diuretics are associated with elevated serum uric acid (SUA) levels. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of thiazide diuretic use on their SUA levels among hypertensive individuals of Pakistan. Methods In this cross-sectional, prospective study, adult hypertensive patients were recruited. They were divided into two groups - thiazide diuretic group and non-thiazide group. Demographic characteristics, hypertension-related characteristics, and SUA levels were included. Data were then entered and analysed using SPSS for Windows version 22.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Results In the thiazide group, 24.5% were hyperuricemic as compared to 15.3% in the non-thiazide group (p=0.03). The overall mean SUA levels in the thiazide group were significantly higher than those in the non-thiazide group (5.9 ± 2.1 vs. 5.3 ± 2.7 mg/dL; p=0.02). Males in the thiazide group also showed a similar pattern (5.9 ± 2.3 vs. 5.1 ± 2.1 mg/dL; p=0.02); however, the differences were insignificant in females. Patients using thiazide diuretics for one to three years were more non-hyperuricemic than hyperuricemic (p=0.000). Among hyperuricemic patients, 36.5% were taking thiazides for three to four years and 46% were taking them for more than four years (p<0.05). Conclusion Hyperuricemia is a more common occurrence in thiazide diuretic users as compared to non-users. The overall sample, and men using thiazide diuretics, reported a higher mean SUA as compared to non-users. As the years of thiazide usage advanced, the number of hyperuricemic participants also significantly increased.

Keywords: anti-hypertensive drugs; diuretics; hypertension; hyperuricemia; pakistan; serum uric acid levels; thiazide.