Background: Ichthyoses are a heterogeneous disease group, which makes clinical classification challenging. An ichthyosis cohort at a center for genodermatoses is presented in detail.
Patients and methods: Patients with clinically and/or genetically confirmed ichthyosis seen from 2004 to 2017 and listed in a database were included. Disease onset, phenotype, histology, comorbidities and family history were described in detail. In genetically tested patients, the prevalence of various ARCI genes, ARCI phenotypes and syndromic ichthyoses, as well as genotype-phenotype correlation and year/method of genetic testing was assessed.
Results: Of all 198 patients who were included in the cohort, 151 were genetically tested. 81 had ichthyosis vulgaris, 43 X-linked ichthyosis, 38 autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI), 9 keratinopathic ichthyosis (KPI) and one exfoliative ichthyosis. 26 individuals suffered from syndromic ichthyoses. A good genotype-phenotype correlation was observed for common ichthyoses and KPI; the correlation was less good in syndromic ichthyoses. In 91 % of ARCI patients an accurate diagnosis was obtained by genetic testing. In only 33 % of syndromic ichthyoses was the definitive diagnosis suspected before genetic testing, which revealed a causative mutation in 86 % of cases.
Conclusion: This study describes the spectrum of ichthyoses in a center of expertise and shows that genetic testing should become a diagnostic standard for this disease group.
© 2019 The Authors. Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft.