Background: PrPC is a host-encoded prion protein, which gets post translationally modified into a transmissible, β-sheet rich disease associated protein called PrPSc, responsible for the Prion disease including mad cow disease in cattle and CJD in humans. The PrP 106-126 region in PrPSc peptide initiates the conformational change in that protein leading to fibrillation. Any agent that can destabilize or disintegrate such proteins can be served as a potential drug candidate for Prion diseases.
Methods: In the present study, an enzyme Lumbrokinase (LK) was isolated from earthworm and its activity was exploited towards PrP 106-126 amyloids in vitro along with another enzyme Serratiopeptidase (SP) taking Nattokinase (NK) as a standard.
Results: The results showed that PrP 106-126 amyloid formation was inhibited by both LK and SP, as evidenced from Thioflavin T fluorescence assay. Further, the size of fibrils as estimated by dynamic light scattering, was also found to be lower at different time intervals after incubation of the prion amyloids with LK and SP. Additionally, the molecular dynamics simulation revealed the thermodynamically favorable interaction of PrP 106-126 with LK as well as with SP with high affinity.
Conclusion: Finally, the toxicity of the disintegrated amyloids was assessed using PC12 cell lines which showed higher cell viability in case of LK and SP treated amyloids compared to only PrP 106- 126 amyloid treatment. Altogether, the study concluded that the serine proteases like LK and SP have the potential to disintegrate PrP 106-126 amyloids with improved cell viability. The in vivo studies are needed to be executed in future.
Keywords: Lumbrokinase; Prion disease; Serratiopeptidase; amyloid degradation; amyloidosis; fatal neurodegenerative disorders..
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