CYP2C9*3 and HLA-B alleles are reportedly associated with phenytoin-induced eruption in some East Asian populations; however, this finding is not readily applicable to the Japanese population. Thus, we aimed to investigate the risk alleles using samples and data from BioBank Japan. A total of 747 patients (24 cases and 723 tolerant controls) were selected for analysis. Case-control association studies were conducted, using CYP2C9*3, CYP2C9*27, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, and HLA-B allele genotype data. CYP2C9*3 carrier status was significantly associated with phenytoin-induced eruption (P = 0.0022, odds ratio 7.05, 95% confidence interval, 2.44-20.4). HLA-B*51:01 showed the most prominent association (P = 0.010, odds ratio 3.19, 95% confidence interval, 1.37-7.48). Including both of these features improved predictive performance, measured as area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, by 10%. CYP2C9*3 and HLA-B*51:01 allele carrier statuses are significantly associated with phenytoin-induced eruption; thus, checking this carrier status before prescription would decrease the incidence of phenytoin-induced eruption in clinical practice.
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