5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a chemotherapeutic agent commonly used to treat esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), but acquisition of chemoresistance frequently occurs and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We found that microRNA (miR)-338-5p was underexpressed in ESCC cells with acquired 5-FU chemoresistance. Forced expression of miR-338-5p in these cells resulted in downregulation of Id-1, and restoration of both in vitro and in vivo sensitivity to 5-FU treatment. The effects were abolished by reexpression of Id-1. In contrast, miR-338-5p knockdown induced 5-FU resistance in chemosensitive esophageal cell lines, and knockdown of both miR-338-5p and Id-1 resensitized the cells to 5-FU. In addition, miR-338-5p had suppressive effects on migration and invasion of ESCC cells. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed a direct interaction between miR-338-5p and the 3'-UTR of Id-1. We also found that miR-338-5p was significantly downregulated in tumor tissue and serum samples of patients with ESCC. Notably, low serum miR-338-5p expression level was associated with poorer survival and poor response to 5-FU/cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. In summary, we found that miR-338-5p can modulate 5-FU chemoresistance and inhibit invasion-related functions in ESCC by negatively regulating Id-1, and that serum miR-338-5p could be a novel noninvasive prognostic and predictive biomarker in ESCC.
Keywords: Id-1; chemoresistance; circulating miRNA; esophageal cancer; miR-338-5p.
© 2019 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.