Background: Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is a predominantly late stage, devastating complication of a variety of malignant solid tumors. Diagnosis relies predominantly on neurological, radiographic, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assessments. Recently, liquid biopsy tests derived from CSF has shown to be a feasible, noninvasive promising approach to tumor molecular profiling for proper brain cancer diagnostic treatment, thereby providing an opportunity for CSF-based personalized medicine. However, LM is typically misleadingly assumed to originate from only one primary tumor type.
Case presentation: In this case report, we provide first evidence of the co-occurrence of LM originating from more than one primary tumor types.
Discussion and conclusions: Based on this patient case profile, the co-occurrence of LM from two or more primary tumor types should be accounted for when deriving diagnostic conclusions from liquid biopsy tests.
Keywords: Adenocarcinoma; Leptomeningeal metastasis; Melanoma; Simultaneous.