Daily red wine vinegar ingestion for eight weeks improves glucose homeostasis and affects the metabolome but does not reduce adiposity in adults

Food Funct. 2019 Nov 1;10(11):7343-7355. doi: 10.1039/c9fo01082c. Epub 2019 Oct 24.


Some studies have reported that vinegar ingestion at mealtime attenuates postprandial glycemia in healthy adults and individuals with type 2 diabetes. Emerging data suggest that chronic vinegar ingestion impacts fat metabolism and reduces adiposity, although no study has yet corroborated the events of vinegar supplementation metabolically through a metabolomics approach. To examine the impact of daily vinegar ingestion on glucose homeostasis, adiposity, and the metabolome, an 8-week, randomized controlled trial design was implemented utilizing two parallel treatment arms: daily red wine vinegar ingestion and a control treatment. Participants were 45 healthy adults at increased risk for metabolic complications as determined by high waist circumferences. Measurements and blood samples were collected pre- and post-intervention. Central adiposity and visceral fat were assessed by waist circumference and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. Plasma metabolites were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography-MS/MS. Analysis showed significant reductions in fasting glucose (p = 0.003) and insulin (p < 0.001). Insulin resistance was reduced 8.3% in the red wine vinegar group and increased 9.7% in the control group (p < 0.001). No significant between-group differences in body mass index, body weight, waist circumference, or visceral fat were observed. Significant differences were observed in amino valerate and indole-3-acetic acid (p < 0.05), with high magnitudes of fold change (>2) between groups. Metabolic pathway analysis revealed significant alterations in tryptophan metabolism. Although daily red wine vinegar ingestion for 8 weeks induced significant improvements in glucose homeostasis, our results indicate that daily red wine vinegar ingestion for 8 weeks is not associated with reductions in adiposity. This is the first study to investigate the effects of daily red wine vinegar supplementation using a metabolomics approach. Our results provide strong rationales for larger prospective studies to further clarify associations among obesity, chronic diseases, and functional foods such as vinegar using metabolomics.

MeSH terms

  • Acetic Acid*
  • Adiposity / drug effects*
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Glucose / metabolism*
  • Homeostasis*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metabolome / drug effects*
  • Young Adult


  • Glucose
  • Acetic Acid