Microglia represent the primary resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and modulate local immune responses. Depending on their physiological functions, microglia can be classified into pro- (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype. Interleukin (IL)-10 is an important modulator of neuronal homeostasis, with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective functions, and can be released by microglia. Here, we investigated how IL-10 deficiency affected the M1/2 polarization of primary microglia upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in vitro. Microglia phenotypes were analyzed via flow cytometry. Cytokine and chemokine secretion were examined by ELISA and bead-based multiplex LEGENDplexTM. Our results showed that genetic depletion of IL-10 led to elevated M1 like phenotype (CD86+ CD206-) under pro-inflammatory conditions associated with increased frequency of IL-6+, TNF-α+ cells and enhanced release of several pro-inflammatory chemokines. Absence of IL-10 led to an attenuated M2 like phenotype (CD86- CD206+) and a reduced secretion of TGF-β1 upon LPS stimulation. In conclusion, IL-10 deficiency may promote the polarization of microglia into M1-prone phenotype under pro-inflammatory conditions.
Keywords: M1/2 polarization; cytokines; interleukin-10; lipopolysaccharide; microglia; phenotype.
Copyright © 2019 Laffer, Bauer, Wasmuth, Busch, Jalilvand, Thanos, Meyer zu Hörste, Loser, Langmann, Heiligenhaus and Kasper.