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Effects of Different Deproteinizing Agents on Topographic Features of Enamel and Shear Bond Strength - An in vitro Study


Effects of Different Deproteinizing Agents on Topographic Features of Enamel and Shear Bond Strength - An in vitro Study

Santy Panchal et al. J Orthod Sci.


Objectives: To evaluate and compare the effect of different enamel deproteinizing agents on topographic features of enamel and shear bond strength before acid etching.

Materials and method: In total, 120 sound human maxillary premolars were taken and divided into three groups: Group 1 control (37% phosphoric acid (H3PO4), Group 2, (5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl)+ 37% H3PO4, and Group 3, (10% Papain gel + 37% H3PO4). These groups were further divided into A and B subgroups. In subgroups 1A, 2A, and 3A (n30) topographic features were evaluated using Scanning electron microscope (SEM) at different magnifications. Insub-groups 1B, 2B, and 3B (n90) metal brackets were bonded with Transbond™ XT, and all the samples were subjected for Shear Bond Strength (SBS) evaluation using universal testing machineat a cross speed of 0.5 mm2/min. The failure mode was analyzed using adhesive remnant index (ARI). Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA for the shear bond strength, and Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitneywas performed for ARI scores.

Results: SEM showed predominance of type 3 etching pattern in control Group (1A) and type 1 and type 2 in deproteinizedGroups (2A and 3A). Mean values of shear bond strength showed statistically significant differences between evaluated groups (P < 0.005). The lowest and highest shear bond strength was attributed to Group 1B (Control) and 3B (10% papain gel), respectively. Statisticallysignificant differences were noted for the mean ARI scores between control and deproteinized group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: 10% papain geland 5.25% NaOCl can be used as deproteinizing agents on enamel surface before acid etchingto enhance the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

Keywords: Adhesive remnant index; deproteinization; phosphoric acid; scanning electron microscope; shear bond strength.

Conflict of interest statement

There are no conflicts of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1
SEM × 5000Micrographs of Group 1A (37% H3PO4) showing type 3 etching pattern of enamel
Figure 2
Figure 2
SEM × 5000Micrographs of Group 2A (5.25% NaOCl) showing type 2 etching pattern of enamel
Figure 3
Figure 3
SEM × 5000Micrographs of Group 3A (10% papain gel) showing type 1 etching pattern of enamel

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