Background and aims: Among treatment-naive individuals with chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection and without cirrhosis, glecaprevir/pibrentasvir for 8 weeks is recommended. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir for 6 weeks in people with acute and recent HCV infection.
Approach and results: In this open-label, single-arm, multicenter, international pilot study, adults with recent HCV (duration of infection < 12 months) received glecaprevir/pibrentasvir 300/120 mg daily for 6 weeks. Primary infection was defined by first positive anti-HCV antibody and/or HCV RNA within 6 months of enrollment and either acute clinical hepatitis within the past 12 months (symptomatic seroconversion illness or alanine aminotransferase > 10 × upper limit of normal) or anti-HCV antibody seroconversion within 18 months. Reinfection was defined as new positive HCV RNA within 6 months of enrollment and evidence of prior spontaneous or treatment-induced clearance. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response at 12 weeks posttreatment (SVR12). Thirty men (median age 43 years, 90% men who have sex with men) received treatment, of whom 77% (n = 23) were human immunodeficiency virus-positive, 47% (n = 14) had ever injected drugs, and 13% (n = 4) had HCV reinfection. The majority had HCV genotype 1 (83%, n = 25), followed by genotype 4 (10%, n = 3) and genotype 3 (7%, n = 2). At baseline, median estimated duration of infection was 29 weeks (range 13, 52) and median HCV RNA was 6.2 log10 IU/mL (range 0.9, 7.7). SVR12 in the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations was achieved in 90% (27/30) and 96% (27/28), respectively. There was one case of relapse, and there were two cases of nonvirological failure (death, n = 1; loss to follow-up, n = 1). No treatment-related serious adverse events were seen.
Conclusions: Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir for 6 weeks was highly effective among people with acute and recent HCV infection, supporting further evaluation of shortened-duration pan-genotypic therapy in this setting.
© 2019 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.