We conducted an adaptive design single-center pilot trial between October 2017 and November 2018 to determine the safety and efficacy of ultra-short-term perioperative pangenotypic direct acting antiviral (DAA) prophylaxis for deceased hepatitis C virus (HCV)-nucleic acid test (NAT) positive donors to HCV negative kidney recipients (D+/R-). In Group 1, 10 patients received one dose of SOF/VEL (sofusbuvir/velpatasvir) pretransplant and one dose on posttransplant Day 1. In Group 2A (N = 15) and the posttrial validation (Group 2B; N = 25) phase, patients received two additional SOF/VEL doses (total 4) on Days 2 and 3 posttransplant. Development of posttransplant HCV transmission triggered 12-week DAA therapy. For available donor samples (N = 27), median donor viral load was 1.37E + 06 IU/mL (genotype [GT]1a: 70%; GT2: 7%; GT3: 23%). Overall viral transmission rate was 12% (6/50; Group 1:30% [3/10]; Group 2A:13% [2/15]; Group 2B:4% [1/25]). For the 6 viremic patients, 5 (83%) achieved sustained virologic response (3 with first-line DAA therapy; and two after retreatment with second-line DAA). At a median follow-up of 8 months posttransplant, overall patient and allograft survivals were 98%, respectively. The 4-day strategy reduced viral transmission to 7.5% (3/40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8%-20.5%) and could result in avoidance of prolonged posttransplant DAA therapy for most D+/R - transplants.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03249194.
Keywords: clinical decision-making; clinical research/practice; clinical trial; complication: infectious; infection and infectious agents - viral: hepatitis C; kidney disease: infectious; kidney transplantation/nephrology.
© 2019 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.