Consumption of Greek yogurt during 12 weeks of high-impact loading exercise increases bone formation in young, adult males - a secondary analysis from a randomized trial

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2020 Jan;45(1):91-100. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0396. Epub 2019 Oct 25.


Exercise combined with protein and calcium has been shown to benefit bone turnover and bone metabolism. Greek yogurt (GY) contains important nutrients that support bone but has yet to be studied with exercise for this purpose. Thirty untrained, university-aged, males were randomized to 2 groups (n = 15/group): GY (20 g protein, 208 mg calcium/dose) or placebo pudding (PP; 0 g protein, 0 g calcium/dose) consumed 3×/day on training days and 2×/day on nontraining days. Both groups underwent a resistance/plyometric training program for 12 weeks. Blood was obtained at weeks 0, 1, and 12 to measure procollagen-type-I-N-terminal-propeptide (P1NP) and C-terminal-telopeptide (CTX). After outlier treatment, P1NP increased more over time in GY versus PP (p = 0.002; interaction). Both groups decreased CTX over time (p = 0.046; time effect). Following 1 week of training, there was a trend towards a significant increase in CTX in PP with no change in GY (p = 0.062; interaction). P1NP changed more in GY than PP (baseline to week 12; p = 0.029) as did the P1NP/CTX ratio (p = 0.015) indicating a greater increase in formation with GY. Thus, GY added to a high-load, high-impact exercise program positively shifted bone turnover towards increased formation while attenuating resorption. GY could be a plausible postexercise food to support bone health in young adult males. Novelty Greek yogurt, with exercise, increased bone formation in young adult males over 12 weeks. After 1 week of an osteogenic exercise program, Greek yogurt tended to blunt a rise in bone resorption seen with the placebo. Greek yogurt is a plausible postexercise food that supports bone.

Keywords: Greek yogurt; bone health; bone turnover; entraînement contre résistance; exercice intensif; loading exercise; renouvellement des cellules osseuses; resistance training; réponse à court terme; santé des os; short-term response; yogourt grec.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Bone Remodeling / physiology*
  • Diet*
  • Exercise / physiology*
  • Exercise Therapy
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Peptide Fragments / blood
  • Procollagen / blood
  • Resistance Training
  • Yogurt*
  • Young Adult


  • Biomarkers
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Procollagen
  • procollagen Type I N-terminal peptide