Plasma Kinetics of Choline and Choline Metabolites After A Single Dose of Superba BoostTM Krill Oil or Choline Bitartrate in Healthy Volunteers

Nutrients. 2019 Oct 22;11(10):2548. doi: 10.3390/nu11102548.


As an essential nutrient, the organic water-soluble compound choline is important for human health. Choline is required for numerous biological processes, including the synthesis of neurotransmitters, and it is an important prerequisite for structural integrity and the functioning of cells. A choline-rich diet provides crucial choline sources, yet additional choline dietary supplements might be needed to fully meet the body's requirements. Dependent on the structure of choline in different sources, absorption and metabolism may differ and strongly impact the bioavailability of circulating choline. This study in healthy volunteers aimed to compare the pharmacokinetics of free choline and of selected choline metabolites between the single dose intake of phosphatidylcholine, present in SuperbaBoostTM krill oil, and choline bitartrate salt. Results demonstrate that albeit free choline levels in plasma were comparable between both choline sources, peak choline concentration was reached significantly later upon intake of SuperbaBoostTM. Moreover, the occurrence of choline metabolites differed between the study products. Levels of the biologically important metabolites betaine and dimethylglycine (DMG) were higher, while levels of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) were substantially lower upon intake of SuperbaBoostTM compared to choline bitartrate.

Keywords: Antarctic krill; SuperbaBoost; betaine; choline; choline bitartrate; dimethylglycine; pharmacokinetics; phosphatidylcholine; trimethylamine N-oxide.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Animals
  • Biological Products
  • Choline / administration & dosage
  • Choline / blood
  • Choline / metabolism*
  • Choline / pharmacokinetics*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Euphausiacea / chemistry*
  • Female
  • Fish Oils / metabolism
  • Fish Oils / pharmacokinetics
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phosphatidylcholines / administration & dosage
  • Phosphatidylcholines / blood
  • Phosphatidylcholines / metabolism*
  • Phosphatidylcholines / pharmacokinetics*
  • Young Adult


  • Biological Products
  • Fish Oils
  • Phosphatidylcholines
  • Choline