Objective: Evaluation of prevalence and risk factors of cervical dysplasia among Human Immunodeficiency Virus sero-positive (HIV+ve) females on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) attending HIV clinic at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Southeastern, Nigeria.
Methods: Structured questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic and risk factors data. Cervical specimens were collected from 105 HIV +ve females on HAART and 104 HIV seronegative (HIV-ve) females. Pap smears were collected using cytobrush and Ayre's spatula in a secluded place. Smears were made on slides and placed in 95% ethyl alcohol for conventional Pap staining and the cytobrush washed into the preservative containers for later Immunocytochemistry staining. Blood samples were used for HIV screening. Immunocytochemistry activity using anti-P16INK4A was carried out on the Pap smears that were positive for cervical dysplasia.
Results: Pap staining showed prevalence of cervical dysplasia among HIV+ve on HAART 19.05%, (ASCUS 14.29%, LSIL 3.81%, HSIL 0.95%) whereas HIV-ve was 6.73%, p = 0.008. Only the HSIL 0.95% was positive for P16INK4A. Odds ratios at 95% Confident Interval of the risk factors of cervical dysplasia were thus; HIV+ve, 3.26 (1.31-8.09), education less than secondary school 3.23 (1.25-8.37), polygamy 3.23 (1.25-8.37), smoking 1.36 (0.15-12.10), married 2.08 (0.43-2.31), grand multi gravidity 1.72 (0.72-4.11), grand multi parity 1.54 (0.66-3.61), positive history of sexually transmitted diseases 2.49 (1.06-5.80). Uptake of cervical cancer screening was low in both study groups, 7 (6.7%) among HIV+ve on HAART and 14 (13.5%) among HIV-ve females, P = 0.102.
Conclusion: HAART had cytoprotective effect against cervical dysplasia in HIV+ve females, by reducing progression of ASCUS to LSIL, HSIL and cervical cancer. Progression from normal to ASCUS increased which could be due to latency or/and prolonged persistent high risk HPV and HIV infections, of the most sexually active age group before diagnosed of HIV.
Keywords: HIV sero-positive; Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy; cervical dysplasia; risk factors.
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