Cellular homeostasis relies on having dedicated and coordinated responses to a variety of stresses. The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a common stress that triggers a conserved pathway called the unfolded protein response (UPR) that mitigates damage, and dysregulation of UPR underlies several debilitating diseases. Here, we discover that a previously uncharacterized 54-amino acid microprotein PIGBOS regulates UPR. PIGBOS localizes to the mitochondrial outer membrane where it interacts with the ER protein CLCC1 at ER-mitochondria contact sites. Functional studies reveal that the loss of PIGBOS leads to heightened UPR and increased cell death. The characterization of PIGBOS reveals an undiscovered role for a mitochondrial protein, in this case a microprotein, in the regulation of UPR originating in the ER. This study demonstrates microproteins to be an unappreciated class of genes that are critical for inter-organelle communication, homeostasis, and cell survival.