There has been a growing emphasis on understanding the important relationship between human-associated microbial communities and disease development. With technological advancements, we are able to gain further insights into host-microbiome interactions at a deeper level. In order to fully leverage the close associations between microbes and their host, development of therapeutics targeting the microbiome has surged in recent years. In this review, we discuss advances made in engineering gut bacteria to develop novel therapeutic modalities that aim to rewire host-microbiome interactions such as host metabolism and immune functions for prevention and treatment of various diseases. In particular, applications of these engineered bacteria against diseases such as metabolic, immune disorders and cancer are covered.
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