Does the molecular mobility and flexibility of the saccharide ring affect the glass-forming ability of naproxen in binary mixtures?

Eur J Pharm Sci. 2020 Jan 1:141:105091. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2019.105091. Epub 2019 Oct 23.


In this paper, we studied the impact of saccharides having a similar backbone but differing in the degree of freedom, local molecular mobility, flexibility of the ring and intermolecular interactions on the glass-forming ability (GFA) of naproxen (NAP) in binary mixtures. For this purpose, a series of methyl and acetyl derivatives of glucose (GLS) and anhydroglucose (anhGLS), as well as neat anhGLS have been used to produce homogeneous solid dispersions (SDs) of varying molar concentration of examined active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Systematic measurements with the use of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy (BDS) enabled us to determine the phase transitions, homogeneity and molecular mobility of the investigated binary mixtures as well as the impact of excipient on the crystallization tendency of NAP. It turned out that acetylated glucose (acGLS), one of the most mobile and flexible saccharides of all examined herein materials, is the best excipient enhancing the GFA of studied API. Although, it should be noted that upon storage at room temperature, we observed the recrystallization of NAP from binary mixtures. Interestingly, API always crystallized to the initial polymorphic form, as shown by X-ray diffraction (XRD) investigations. Finally, since additional measurements with the use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy clearly indicated that there are no significant differences in the intermolecular interactions in the systems composed of NAP and all examined saccharides, one can postulate that the mobility and ring flexibility of the matrix have, , the most important impact on the crystallization tendency of NAP upon cooling. Consequently, it seems that in some cases, more mobile/flexible matrices can be a much better choice to enhance the glass-forming ability of studied pharmaceutical.

Keywords: Binary mixtures; Crystallization tendency; Glass-forming ability; Modified saccharides; Molecular interactions; Molecular mobility; Naproxen.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / chemistry*
  • Crystallization
  • Glass / chemistry*
  • Glucose / analogs & derivatives*
  • Glucose / chemistry*
  • Naproxen / chemistry*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Naproxen
  • Glucose