Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2019 Dec;48(4):751-764. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2019.08.004. Epub 2019 Sep 18.


Pseudopheochromocytoma manifests as severe, symptomatic paroxysmal hypertension without significant elevation in catecholamine and metanephrine levels and lack of evidence of tumor in the adrenal gland. The clinical manifestations are similar but not identical to those in excess circulating catecholamines. The underlying symptomatic mechanism includes augmented cardiovascular responsiveness to catecholamines alongside heightened sympathetic nervous stimulation. The psychological characteristics are probably attributed to the component of repressed emotions related to a past traumatic episode or repressive coping style. Successful management can be achieved by strong collaboration between a hypertension specialist and a psychiatrist or psychologist with expertise in cognitive-behavioral panic management.

Keywords: Hypertension; Paroxysm; Pheochromocytoma; Pseudopheochromocytoma; Spell.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Gland Neoplasms* / complications
  • Adrenal Gland Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Adrenal Gland Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / diagnosis
  • Hypertension* / etiology
  • Hypertension* / therapy
  • Panic Disorder* / complications
  • Panic Disorder* / diagnosis
  • Panic Disorder* / therapy
  • Pheochromocytoma* / complications
  • Pheochromocytoma* / diagnosis
  • Pheochromocytoma* / therapy
  • Somatoform Disorders* / complications
  • Somatoform Disorders* / diagnosis
  • Somatoform Disorders* / therapy