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. 2019 Oct 31;42(10):687-692.
doi: 10.14348/molcells.2019.0214.

Transfer RNA-Derived Small Non-Coding RNA: Dual Regulator of Protein Synthesis

Free PMC article

Transfer RNA-Derived Small Non-Coding RNA: Dual Regulator of Protein Synthesis

Hak Kyun Kim. Mol Cells. .
Free PMC article


Transfer RNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) play a role in various cellular processes. Accumulating evidence has revealed that tsRNAs are deeply implicated in human diseases, such as various cancers and neurological disorders, suggesting that tsRNAs should be investigated to develop novel therapeutic intervention. tsRNAs provide more complexity to the physiological role of transfer RNAs by repressing or activating protein synthesis with distinct mechanisms. Here, we highlight the detailed mechanism of tsRNA-mediated dual regulation in protein synthesis and discuss the necessity of novel sequencing technology to learn more about tsRNAs.

Keywords: tRF; tRNA; translation; tsRNA.

Conflict of interest statement


The author has no potential conflicts of interest to disclose.


Fig. 1
Fig. 1. tsRNA regulates mRNA translation with distinct mechanisms
(A) 18-nt TOG-contained 5′tsRNA binds to PABPC1 to displace PABPC1 and translation initiation factors from mRNA. (B) 20- to 22-nt 5′tsRNA binds to RPs, eIFs, and eEFs mRNAs and repress their translations. (C) TOG contained 5′tiRNAs are induced under various stresses and inhibit global translation by displacing eIF4F complex from mRNA and promoting SG formation. (D) 22-nt LeuCAG3′tsRNA is required for ribosome biogenesis. It enhances RPS28 mRNA translation by unfolding the secondary structure of target sites in RPS28 mRNA during translation. (E) tRNAThr 3′half stimulates protein synthesis by binding to ribosome and facilitating mRNA loading onto polysomes.

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