Residual renal function and diuresis preservation are associated with improved volume control and lower mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD). Loop diuretics are used to maintain diuresis, although their optimal dosage remains unclear. This study aimed to compare the pharmacodynamics of a 250-mg and a 500-mg dose of oral furosemide in PD patients. 12 patients with a diuresis > 100 mL per day were randomized in a crossover pattern to successively receive an oral dose of 250 mg and 500 mg of furosemide. Twelve-hour natriuresis and diuresis were measured before and after each furosemide dose. Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) and absolute sodium excretion increased after each dose, although these rises were not statistically significantly different (5.8% (250 mg) vs. 6.9% (500 mg), p = 0.57 for FENa and 42.6 mmol/12h (250 mg) vs. 70.8 mmol/12h (500 mg), p = 0.07 for absolute sodium excretion). Urinary volume was significantly increased after the 500-mg dose, whilst the difference did not reach statistical significance after the 250-mg dose. Furthermore, the higher dose was associated with a greater increase in diuresis than the lower dose (226 mL (250 mg) vs. 522 mL (500 mg), p = 0.04). Furosemide could be used at oral single doses reaching 500 mg in PD patients requiring greater volume control.