Background: Population modeling and simulations can be used to facilitate the conduct of phase I studies to develop safe and effective dosing regimens in neonates.
Setting: P1110 is an international, multicenter trial to determine safe and effective raltegravir doses in neonates at risk for HIV infection.
Methods: P1110 used a 2-cohort adaptive design incorporating population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations. An initial cohort of neonates received 2 single oral doses of raltegravir with standard-of-care therapy for prevention of perinatal transmission-one within 48 hours of birth and a second at 7-10 days of life. Raltegravir concentration data after administration of these doses were combined with data from a previous study of infants aged 4 weeks to 2 years. The combined database was used for population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations to select a daily dosing regimen for investigation in a second cohort of neonates.
Results: Raltegravir concentration data from 6 neonates were combined with data from infants aged 4 weeks to 2 years receiving raltegravir twice daily. The combined data set allowed for successful development of a population pharmacokinetic model with reasonable precision of parameter estimates. Monte Carlo simulations were run to evaluate potential daily dosing regimens from birth to 6 weeks of age, allowing for selection of a regimen to be evaluated in a subsequent cohort of neonates receiving chronic raltegravir dosing.
Conclusions: An adaptive design incorporating population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations was used to select a developmentally appropriate neonatal raltegravir dosing regimen in the first 6 weeks of life.