Parathyroid cancer is one of the rarest causes of primary hyperparathyroidism and tends to present with more severe symptoms than its more benign counterparts. This article details various aspects of the disease process, including epidemiology, clinical presentation, and a step-wise diagnostic process for parathyroid cancer. This includes laboratory assessments as well as a proposed staging system. The en bloc principle of surgical intervention is detailed, as well as the current role of adjuvant treatments. A general guide to surveillance and the natural history of the disease is also outlined.
Keywords: diagnosis; epidemiology; parathyroid cancer; surgical management; surveillance.