Rapid and accurate detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is critical for appropriate treatment and infection control. We compared a rapid fluorogenic assay using a carbapenem-based fluorogenic probe with other phenotypic assays: modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM), Carba NP test (CNP), and carbapenemase inhibition test (CIT). A total of 217 characterized isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were included as follows: 63 CPE; 48 non-carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (non-CP-CRE); 53 extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers; and 53 third-generation-cephalosporin-susceptible isolates. The fluorogenic assay using bacterial colonies (Fluore-C) was conducted by lysing the isolates followed by centrifugation and mixing the supernatant with fluorogenic probe. In addition, for the fluorogenic assay using spiked blood culture bottles (Fluore-Direct), pellets were obtained via the saponin preparation method, which can directly identify the pathogens using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The fluorescence signal was measured over 50 min using a fluorometer. The fluorescent signal of CPE was significantly higher than that of non-CPE in both Fluore-C (median relative fluorescence units [RFU] [range], 5,814 [240 to 32,009] versus 804 [36 to 2,480], respectively; P < 0.0001) and Fluore-Direct (median RFU [range], 10,355 [1,689 to 31,463] versus 1,068 [428 to 2,155], respectively; P < 0.0001) tests. Overall, positive and negative percent agreements of Fluore-C, mCIM, CNP, CIT, and Fluore-Direct were 100% and 98.7%, 98.3% and 97.5%, 88.1% and 100%, 96.4% and 98.7%, and 98.3% and 98.1%, respectively. The relatively lower positive percent agreement (PPA) of CNP was mainly observed in OXA-type CPE. The fluorogenic assay showed excellent performance with bacterial colonies and also directly from positive blood cultures. We included many non-CP-CRE isolates for strict evaluation. The fluorogenic assay will be a useful tool for clinical microbiology laboratories.
Keywords: carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae; direct; fluorogenic assay; fluorogenic probe; positive blood culture.
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