Superconductors, orbital magnets and correlated states in magic-angle bilayer graphene

Nature. 2019 Oct;574(7780):653-657. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1695-0. Epub 2019 Oct 30.


Superconductivity can occur under conditions approaching broken-symmetry parent states1. In bilayer graphene, the twisting of one layer with respect to the other at 'magic' twist angles of around 1 degree leads to the emergence of ultra-flat moiré superlattice minibands. Such bands are a rich and highly tunable source of strong-correlation physics2-5, notably superconductivity, which emerges close to interaction-induced insulating states6,7. Here we report the fabrication of magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene devices with highly uniform twist angles. The reduction in twist-angle disorder reveals the presence of insulating states at all integer occupancies of the fourfold spin-valley degenerate flat conduction and valence bands-that is, at moiré band filling factors ν = 0, ±1, ±2, ±3. At ν ≈ -2, superconductivity is observed below critical temperatures of up to 3 kelvin. We also observe three new superconducting domes at much lower temperatures, close to the ν = 0 and ν = ±1 insulating states. Notably, at ν = ± 1 we find states with non-zero Chern numbers. For ν = -1 the insulating state exhibits a sharp hysteretic resistance enhancement when a perpendicular magnetic field greater than 3.6 tesla is applied, which is consistent with a field-driven phase transition. Our study shows that broken-symmetry states, interaction-driven insulators, orbital magnets, states with non-zero Chern numbers and superconducting domes occur frequently across a wide range of moiré flat band fillings, including close to charge neutrality. This study provides a more detailed view of the phenomenology of magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene, adding to our evolving understanding of its emergent properties.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.