Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2019 Oct 4;21:65-70.
doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2019.10.001. eCollection 2020 Mar.

Human Thrust in Aquatic Environment: The Effect of Post-Activation Potentiation on Flutter Kick

Free PMC article

Human Thrust in Aquatic Environment: The Effect of Post-Activation Potentiation on Flutter Kick

Felicia Ng et al. J Adv Res. .
Free PMC article


Herein, we analyse by experimental techniques the human kicking thrust and measure the effect of a warm-up routine that includes post-activation potentiation (PAP) sets on front-crawl flutter kick thrust, kinematics, and performance. Sixteen male competitive swimmers with 22.13 ± 3.84 years of age were randomly assigned in a crossover manner to undergo a standard warm-up (non-PAP; control condition) and a warm-up that included PAP sets (PAP; experimental condition) consisting in 2 × 5 repetitions of unloaded countermovement jump. Participants performed a 25 m all-out trial in front-crawl with only flutter kicks eight min after each warm-up. Kinetics (i.e., peak thrust, mean thrust, and thrust-time integral) and kinematics (i.e., speed, speed fluctuation and kicking frequency) were experimentally collected by an in-house customized system composed of differential pressure sensors, speedo-meter, and underwater camera. Peak thrust (P = 0.02, d = 0.66) and mean thrust (P = 0.10, d = 0.40) were increased by 15% in PAP compared to non-PAP. Large and significant differences were noted in speed (P = 0.01, d = 0.54) and speed fluctuation (P = 0.02, d = 0.58), which improved by 10% in PAP compared with non-PAP. In conclusion, a warm-up that includes PAP sets improves kicking thrust, kinematics and performance.

Keywords: Human locomotion; Kinematics; Kinetics; Post-activation potentiation; Propulsion; Swimming.

Similar articles

See all similar articles


    1. Fish F.E., Hui C.A. Dolphin swimming–a review. Mammal Rev. 1991;21(4):181–195.
    1. Johnson W., Soden P.D., Trueman E.R. A study in jet propulsion: an analysis of the motion of the squid, Loligo vulgaris. J Exp Biol. 1972;56(1):155–165.
    1. Videler J.O., Kamermans P.A. Differences between upstroke and downstroke in swimming dolphins. J Exp Biol. 1985;119(1):265–274. - PubMed
    1. O’dor R.K., Wells J., Wells M.J. Speed, jet pressure and oxygen consumption relationships in free-swimming Nautilus. J Exp Biol. 1990;154(1):383–396.
    1. Drucker E.G., Lauder G.V. Locomotor function of the dorsal fin in teleost fishes: experimental analysis of wake forces in sunfish. J Exp Biol. 2001;204(17):2943–2958. - PubMed

LinkOut - more resources