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Review
. 2019 Oct 3;3(10):nzz109.
doi: 10.1093/cdn/nzz109. eCollection 2019 Oct.

Effects of Intake of Apples, Pears, or Their Products on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Free PMC article
Review

Effects of Intake of Apples, Pears, or Their Products on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Bridget A Gayer et al. Curr Dev Nutr. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Apples and pears contain nutrients that have been linked to cardiovascular health. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize related research. Medline, Cochrane Central, and Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau databases were searched for publications on apple or pear intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD)/ cardiometabolic disease (CMD). Studies in adults (healthy or at risk for CVD) that quantified apple or pear intake were included. Random-effects models meta-analysis was used when ≥3 studies reported the same outcome. In total, 22 studies were eligible including 7 randomized controlled trial, 1 nonrandomized trial, and 14 prospective observational studies. In RCTs, apple intake significantly decreased BMI, but made no difference in body weight, serum lipids, blood glucose, or blood pressure. In observational studies, apple or pear intake significantly decreased risk of cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular death, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and all-cause mortality. No association was reported for cerebral infarction or intracerebral hemorrhage. In conclusion, apple or pear intake significantly decreased BMI and risk for CVD outcomes.

Keywords: BMI; apples; cardiovascular disease; cerebrovascular disease; pears; type-2 diabetes mellitus.

Figures

FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1
Results of comprehensive literature search.
FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2
Meta-analysis of intervention trials reporting the effect of apple consumption compared with control on BMI (kg/m2).
FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3
Meta-analysis of intervention trials reporting the effect of apple consumption compared with control on total cholesterol.
FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4
Meta-analysis of observation studies reporting the effect of apple consumption dose on cerebrovascular disease.
FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5
Meta-analysis of observational studies reporting the effect of apple and pear consumption dose on all-cause mortality.
FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6
Meta-analysis of observational studies reporting the effect of apple and pear consumption dose on on type 2 diabetes.

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