The role of Toll-like receptor 10 in modulation of trained immunity

Immunology. 2020 Mar;159(3):289-297. doi: 10.1111/imm.13145. Epub 2019 Nov 26.


Toll-like receptor 10 (TLR10) is the only member of the human Toll-like receptor family with an inhibitory function on the induction of innate immune responses and inflammation. However, its role in the modulation of trained immunity (innate immune memory) is unknown. In the present study, we assessed whether TLR10 modulates the induction of trained immunity induced by β-glucan or bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Interleukin 10 receptor antagonist production was increased upon activation of TLR10 ex vivo after BCG vaccination, and TLR10 protein expression on monocytes was increased after BCG vaccination, whereas anti-TLR10 antibodies did not significantly modulate β-glucan or BCG-induced trained immunity in vitro. A known immunomodulatory TLR10 missense single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs11096957) influenced trained immunity responses by β-glucan or BCG in vitro. However, the in vivo induction of trained immunity by BCG vaccination was not influenced by TLR10 polymorphisms. In conclusion, TLR10 has a limited, non-essential impact on the induction of trained immunity in humans.

Keywords: Toll-like receptor 10; innate immunity; trained immunity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate / drug effects*
  • Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein / metabolism
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / drug effects*
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / immunology
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / metabolism
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mutation, Missense
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Signal Transduction
  • Toll-Like Receptor 10 / agonists*
  • Toll-Like Receptor 10 / genetics
  • Toll-Like Receptor 10 / immunology
  • Toll-Like Receptor 10 / metabolism
  • Up-Regulation
  • Vaccination*
  • Young Adult


  • BCG Vaccine
  • IL1RN protein, human
  • Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein
  • TLR10 protein, human
  • Toll-Like Receptor 10