The use of 5-azacytidine in pregnant patient with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): a case report

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019 Oct 31;19(1):394. doi: 10.1186/s12884-019-2522-1.


Background: The management of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) during pregnancy remains challenging as both the maternal and fetal outcomes should be considered. Several reports suggested that chemotherapy can be administered safely during the second and third trimester of pregnancy. However, the use of 5-azacytidine presents limitation due to lack of data.

Case presentation: A 28-years-old woman in the 26th week of gestation diagnosed with FLT3/ITD-mutated AML, complete remission was induced by Daunorubicin and Cytarabine, and subsequently with 5-azacytidine (75 mg/m2 daily for 7 days) with no fetal hematological or toxicity issues. Fetal ultrasound showed no aberrant morphology. Fetal size below the 5th percentile with normal umbilical artery dopplers, normal middle cerebral artery dopplers and ductus venosus doppler. Three weeks post 5-azacytidine, the team determined the most appropriate time for delivery after balancing the risks of prematurity and prevention of disease relapse since patient in hematological remission. The patient underwent elective lower segment caesarian section and had a baby girl delivered at 35 weeks of gestation weighing 1670 g without apparent anomalies.

Conclusion: Treatment using 5-azacytadine during last trimester of pregnancy resulted in no major fetal and maternal complications. These findings concluded that 5-azacytadine during the third trimester of pregnancy seems to be safe however, potential risks of this agent should be considered.

Keywords: Acute Myeloid leukemia; Cytarabine; Daunorubicin; Leukemia”; pregnancy; third trimester; “5-azacyitidne.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use*
  • Azacitidine / therapeutic use*
  • Cesarean Section
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Induction Chemotherapy
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy*
  • Live Birth
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy*
  • Pregnancy Trimester, Third


  • Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
  • Azacitidine