Clinical Pathology of Donkeys and Mules

Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2019 Dec;35(3):433-455. doi: 10.1016/j.cveq.2019.08.002.


Given the stoic nature of donkeys and their hybrids, it is important to consider the significance of diagnostic testing modalities that can provide objective health status information beyond the basic physical examination findings. However, clinical pathology assays are also fraught with significant limitations because the results for donkeys, mules, and hinnies can be difficult to interpret, and transference of data from the horse is not always applicable. This article presents considerations for sample collection, storage, analysis, and interpretation strategies for clinical pathology testing of donkeys and their hybrids based on the limited information available in the literature.

Keywords: Chemistry; Clinical pathology; Donkey; Equid; Hemogram; Hinny; Mule.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Equidae*
  • Horse Diseases / pathology*
  • Horses
  • Pathology, Clinical