Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Pancreas

Surg Pathol Clin. 2019 Dec;12(4):1021-1044. doi: 10.1016/j.path.2019.08.007.


Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and pancreas are a rare and heterogeneous group of neoplasms characterized by common cellular features as well as unique site-specific traits. GI and pancreatic NENs are much rarer than the more common adenocarcinomas arising at these sites. However, the incidences of GI and pancreatic NENs have increased significantly, particularly in the stomach and common site, followed by rectum, appendix, colon, and stomach. Pancreatic NENs are also uncommon, with fewer than 1 per 100,000, accounting for 1% to 2% of all pancreatic neoplasms.

Keywords: Ki-67; Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma; WHO classification and grade; Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Incidence
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / mortality
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / mortality
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Prognosis
  • Stomach Neoplasms / mortality
  • Stomach Neoplasms / pathology*