The predictive value of weight gain and waist circumference for gestational diabetes mellitus

Turk J Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Sep;16(3):199-204. doi: 10.4274/tjod.galenos.2019.03266. Epub 2019 Oct 10.


Objective: The first objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and gestational weight gain (WG), waist circumference (WC), prepregnancy, and gestational body mass index (BMI). The second aim of our study was to assess the ability of WG, WC, prepregnancy, and gestational BMI with special reference to their cut-off points on predicting the risk of GDM in pregnant women in Turkey.

Materials and methods: A total of 261 women who underwent screening for GDM with the 75-g glucose tolerance test (GTT) between 24th and 28th gestational weeks were included. According to the 75-g oral GTT results, women were classified into two groups: the GDM group and non-GDM group. The data collected included age, parity, plasma glucose level for fasting, 1- and 2-h tests, WC, prepregnancy and gestational BMI, prepregnancy weight, WG during pregnancy, gestational age at birth, and birth weight.

Results: WC at 20-24 weeks of gestation, prepregnancy BMI, and gestational BMI had a predictive capacity for GDM. According to our results, optimal cut-off points for the best predictive value of GDM were WC of 100 cm with a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 70%, prepregnancy BMI of 25 kg/m2 with a sensitivity of 81.8% and specificity of 76%, and gestational BMI of 28.3 kg/m2 with a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 77.4%.

Conclusion: The measurement of prepregnancy BMI, gestational BMI, and WC may be useful in predicting the risk of GDM. Pregnant women with increased prepregnancy BMI, gestational BMI, and WC measurements may be susceptible to the development of GDM.

Keywords: Gestational diabetes mellitus; body mass index; pregnancy; waist circumference; weight gain.