Update on Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents Administered to Neonates for Neuroprotection

Neoreviews. 2019 Nov;20(11):e622-e635. doi: 10.1542/neo.20-11-e622.


Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) such as erythropoietin and darbepoetin have been studied as red blood cell growth factors in preterm and term infants for more than 30 years. Recently, studies have focused on the potential neuroprotective effects of ESAs. In this review, we summarize preclinical animal models and recent clinical trials that provide evidence for ESAs as potential treatments to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm and term infants.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Hematinics / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature*
  • Neuroprotection / drug effects*
  • Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology*


  • Hematinics
  • Neuroprotective Agents