Background: In adults, the time-to-glucose-peak at or after 30 minutes during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) identifies physiologically distinct groups with differences in insulin sensitivity, β-cell function and risk for type 2 diabetes. In obese non-diabetic adolescents, we investigated if the OGTT-time-to-glucose-peak also reflects incretin and free fatty acid (FFA) responses besides insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, measured by the clamp.
Methods: Obese adolescents (n = 278) were categorized according to their OGTT-time-to-glucose-peak by Early-peak (at 30 minutes) vs Late-peak (>30 minutes) groups. Body composition, visceral adipose tissue, oral disposition index and OGTT-area under the curve (AUC) were examined. A subset of 102 participants had both hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamps to measure in vivo insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity.
Results: Compared with the Early-peak group, the Late-peak group had impaired β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity, lower glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-AUC, and higher FFA-AUC despite higher insulin- and C-peptide-AUC. They also had lower hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity despite similar percent body fat and visceral adipose tissue, and had higher prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (all P < .05).
Conclusions: In obese non-diabetic youth, those with a Late-peak vs an Early-peak glucose during an OGTT showed diminished β-cell function, blunted incretin secretion, and lower insulin sensitivity of glucose and FFA metabolism. It remains to be determined if Late-peak glucose predicts the future development of type 2 diabetes in these high-risk youth.
Keywords: OGTT; clamp; glucose peak; insulin sensitivity; obesity; youth; β-cell function.
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.