Pre-term birth and asthma is associated with hypomineralized second primary molars in pre-schoolers: A population-based study

Int J Paediatr Dent. 2020 Mar;30(2):193-201. doi: 10.1111/ipd.12584. Epub 2019 Nov 2.


Background: Hypomineralized second primary molar (HSPM) is a developmental enamel defect that represents a caries-risk factor. There are few studies about HSPM epidemiology in representative populations.

Aim: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with HSPM in pre-schoolers.

Design: This is a cross-sectional population-based study of 5-year-old pre-schoolers from Teresina, Brazil. The sample was randomly selected and stratified by geographic region of the city, type of school (public and private), and sex of the pre-schoolers (n = 811). Sociodemographic status and pre-, peri-, and post-natal conditions were collected by structured questionnaires. Two calibrated examiners diagnosed HSPM using the criteria of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry for molar-incisor hypomineralization. Severity, colour, location, and extent of lesions were also evaluated. Descriptive analysis of the data and a Poisson regression analysis were performed (P < .05).

Results: The prevalence of HSPM was 14.9. Demarcated opacities (75.6%) and white/cream colour were the most prevalent (71.4%). Pre-term pre-schoolers had 66% (PR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.07-2.58), and those who reported asthma in the first year of life had 69% (PR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.01-2.85) higher prevalence of HSPM.

Conclusions: Pre-term birth and reported asthma in the first year of life were associated with HSPM. The prevalence of HSPM in pre-schoolers aged 5 years old in Teresina was high.

Keywords: associated factors; hypomineralization; primary teeth.

MeSH terms

  • Asthma*
  • Brazil
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia*
  • Humans
  • Molar
  • Prevalence
  • Term Birth