Long-term exposure to PM 2.5 and fasting plasma glucose in non-diabetic adolescents in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Environ Pollut. 2020 Feb;257:113423. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113423. Epub 2019 Oct 19.


Background: Indonesia is facing serious air pollution. However, very few studies have been conducted to examine the health risks of air pollution in Indonesia, particularly for adolescents.

Objective: To assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient particles with a diameter of <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in adolescents.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 482 adolescents aged 14-18 years in Yogyakarta, Indonesia in 2016. We finally included 469 (97.30%) participants who had no missing data for data analysis. We collected individual data on socio-demographics, behavioral habits, and health information through standardized questionnaires. Satellite-based PM2.5 concentrations from 2013 to 2016 were assigned based on participants' residential addresses. The association between PM2.5 and FPG was examined using a generalized linear regression model while FPG was modeled as a continuous variable. An ordered logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship between PM2.5 and FPG categories.

Results: Every 1 μg/m³ increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.34 mg/dL [95 confidence interval (95% CI): 0.08 mg/dL, 0.59 mg/dL] increase in FPG levels. Comparing with the low FPG level (under 86 mg/dL), every 1 μg/m³ increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 10.20% (95% CI: 1.60%, 19.80%) increase in the odds of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (100-125 mg/dL). Stratified analyses indicated greater effects on participants with hypertension [odds ratio (OR) = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.57] and those had higher physical activities (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.57). Adolescents' sex, obesity status and different cutoff points of FPG did not modify the association between the exposure to PM2.5 and FPG levels.

Conclusion: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with increased FPG levels in Indonesian non-diabetic adolescents.

Keywords: Diabetes; Fasting plasma glucose; Indonesia; Long-term; PM(2.5).

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Environmental Exposure / analysis
  • Fasting
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Indonesia
  • Linear Models
  • Logistic Models
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Particulate Matter / toxicity*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Particulate Matter