Predictors of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birthweight Among Pregnant Women With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Can J Diabetes. 2019 Dec;43(8):560-566. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjd.2019.08.015. Epub 2019 Sep 4.


Objective: Our aim in this study was to compare the effects of risk factors for large-for-gestational-age (LGA) birthweight between women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (TIDM and T2DM, respectively).

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted for women with T1DM (n=152) and T2DM (n=255) attending a diabetes/pregnancy clinic during the period from 2009 to 2016. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with LGA birthweight.

Results: LGA was significantly higher in those with T1DM (39%) than T2DM (17%) (p<0.001). Among those with T1DM, there was a nonsignificant association between LGA and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (odds ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.39; p=0.06) and excess maternal weight gain (T1DM odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.43; p=0.069). In those with T2DM, there was an association between LGA and glycated hemoglobin at delivery (T2DM odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.19; p=0.01).

Conclusions: In the study population, glycemic control at delivery was predictive of LGA in women with T2DM, and there was a trend toward an association of maternal weight gain and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion with LGA infants in T1DM. Further study is warranted to better guide targeted interventions to reduce high rates of LGA birthweight in T1DM/T2DM.

Keywords: diabète de type 1; diabète de type 2; grossesse; large for gestational age; macrosomie fœtale; pregnancy; type 1 diabetes; type 2 diabetes.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Birth Weight*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Female
  • Fetal Macrosomia / etiology*
  • Gestational Age
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Retrospective Studies