Despite the numerous social and economic benefits of vaccination, adult immunization rates fall far short of recommended levels costing the United States $9 billion annually in health care expenditures and reduced productivity. While it is well recognized that childhood immunization is highly cost-effective, the economic impact of adult immunization programs varies by disease and is influenced by population demographics. This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive adult immunization program serving high-need populations delivered by a local health department (LHD) in partnership with community organizations. We modeled incremental cost-effectiveness taking the payer perspective of each vaccine separately in simulated cohorts of 100,000 over a 20-year horizon using data provided by the LHD and data from the published literature. We adjusted the results to align with actual program delivery and used them to estimate an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for the entire program. We assessed the effects of varying our base model parameters in univariate sensitivity analyses. We discounted benefits and life years saved (LYS) at 3% and adjusted results to 2016 US$. Four of seven disease models were cost-effective (using a $100,000 CE threshold) with ICERS ranging from $14,260 to $79,022/LYS. Sensitivity analyses did not substantially impact the results. The ICER for program as a whole was $67,940/LYS. A community-delivered comprehensive immunization program serving uninsured, low income, high-risk adults is a cost-effective investment even when most do not receive the full regimen of some vaccines.
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