Background: The inappropriate use of antimicrobials and increased rates of antimicrobial resistance is a challenge all over the world. Although antibiotic stewardship is recommended by the Brazilian government, data regarding antibiotic use in Brazilian hospitals are scarce. The aim of this study was to conduct a point prevalence survey of antimicrobial use in 18 Brazilian hospitals.
Methods: Eighteen Brazilian hospitals conducted the Global Point Prevalence Survey of Antimicrobial Consumption and Resistance (Global-PPS) in 2017. The study enrolled inpatients on antimicrobials. Data collection included details on the antimicrobial prescriptions. A web-based programme was used for data-entry, validation and reporting. The Global-PPS was developed by the University of Antwerp and bioMérieux provided funding support.
Findings: A total of 1801 patients were evaluated, of which 941 (52.2%) were on antimicrobials. Four hundred (42.5%) patients were given at least two antimicrobials. Out of the 1317 antibacterials for systemic use, 514 (39%) were prescribed for community-acquired infections, 533 (40.5%) for healthcare-associated infections and 248 (18.8%) for prophylactic use. The most frequently used antimicrobials were ceftriaxone (12.8%), meropenem (12.3%) and vancomycin (10.3%). Pneumonia or lower respiratory tract infection was the most common site of infection (29.2%). In general, antimicrobials were given mainly parenterally (91%) and empirically (81.2%).
Conclusions: A high prevalence of antibiotic use was observed in the 18 Brazilian hospitals. The antibiotics were prescribed mainly empirically. Intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics were the most frequent antimicrobials used, showing that reinforcement of de-escalation strategy is needed. The Global-PPS data can be very useful for monitoring stewardship programmes and intervention.
Keywords: Antibiotic consumption; Brazil; Point prevalence; Point prevalence survey; Stewardship.
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