Radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS), in which asymptomatic demyelinating-appearing lesions are detected incidentally on MRI, can be a pre-clinical form of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we measured cerebellar volumes on 3D T1-weighted 3T MR images in 21 individuals with RIS and 38 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Normalized cerebellar white matter volume and the anterior cerebellar gray matter volume were significantly decreased in RIS compared to HC (p = 0.003 and p = 0.005, respectively). Our findings support reports of regional brain atrophy in RIS prior to the development of a seminal attack related to inflammatory demyelination.
Keywords: Radiologically isolated syndrome; brainstem; cerebellar atrophy; cerebellum; multiple sclerosis; white matter lesions.