Evaluation of Peripartum Depression in Females

Int J Appl Basic Med Res. 2019 Oct-Dec;9(4):201-205. doi: 10.4103/ijabmr.IJABMR_23_19. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Abstract

Background: Depression is the most common mental health condition affecting perinatal women and mothers worldwide. Worldwide, about 10% of pregnant women and 13% of women who have given birth experience a mental disorder, primarily depression. In developing countries like India, this is even higher, i.e., 15.6% during pregnancy and 19.8% after childbirth. The present study was initiated with the objective of studying the prevalence of depression among women in the peripartum period and to find the association of peripartum depression and its risk factors.

Materials and methods: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study, including mothers in antenatal and postnatal period. A sample size of 200 was calculated using Daniels' formula. A questionnaire was administered by the investigator in vernacular language by an interview technique for assessing awareness and behavior of all participants. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to identify the patients at the risk of depression. Written informed consent was taken from every participant.

Results: The prevalence of peripartum depression was 14%. Younger age group (not <18 years), working female, joint family, first pregnancy, social support from in-laws, and not having desire/pressure for a male child were found to be associated with a lower prevalence of peripartum depression. Other variables which were not significantly associated with peripartum depression were education of the participants and their husbands and urban/rural locality.

Conclusion: The prevalence of peripartum depression is quite high and is negatively associated with first pregnancy, joint family, and working status.

Keywords: Peripartum depression; prevalence; sociodemographic factors; urban and rural.