Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a neoplastic condition composed of immature myeloid cells involving an extramedullary site. We investigated underlying chromosomal and molecular alterations to assess potential molecular markers of prognosis and outcome in this rare pediatric disease. We conducted a retrospective review of clinicopathologic and cytogenetic data from 33 pediatric patients with MS (ages 1 month-18 years) at our institution over a 32 year period (1984-2016). Tissue-based cancer microarray and targeted next-generation sequencing analysis were performed on six cases. The median age at diagnosis was 2.8 years with a male-to-female ratio of 2.6:1. MS is commonly presented with concomitant marrow involvement (n = 12, 36.4%) or as a recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 14, 42.4%). The skin (n = 18, 54.5%) and soft tissue (n = 9, 27.3%) were the most common sites of involvement. Twenty-one of 25 samples (84.0%) harbored chromosomal aberrations; KMT2A alterations (n = 10, 40.0%) or complex cytogenetics (n = 7, 28.0%) were most frequent. Mutations in RAS, tyrosine kinase, cell signaling, and chromatin remodeling genes were detected. When compared to pediatric patients with AML without extramedullary involvement (EMI), inferior overall survival (OS) was observed (18.8 months vs. 89.3 months, p = .008). Pediatric patients with MS with non-favorable cytogenetics [abnormalities other than t(8;21), inv(16)/t(16;16), or t(15;17)] had a significantly lower OS compared to patients with AML with non-favorable cytogenetics and no extramedullary involvement (8.0 months vs. 28.1 months, p < .001). Pediatric MS is a rare disease with diverse clinical presentations. Non-favorable cytogenetics may be a poor prognostic marker for pediatric patients with MS and molecular diagnostics can assist with risk stratification and identify potentially actionable targets.
Keywords: Cytogenetics; molecular; myeloid sarcoma; pediatric; risk stratification.