Valuing Health State: An EQ-5D-5L Value Set for Ethiopians

Value Health Reg Issues. 2020 Sep:22:7-14. doi: 10.1016/j.vhri.2019.08.475. Epub 2019 Nov 2.


Objectives: There is a growing interest in health technology assessment and economic evaluations in developing countries such as Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to derive an EQ-5D-5L value set from the Ethiopian general population to facilitate cost utility analysis.

Methods: A nationally representative sample (N = 1050) was recruited using a stratified multistage quota sampling technique. Face-to-face, computer-assisted interviews using the EuroQol Portable Valuation Technology (EQ-PVT) protocol of composite time trade-off (c-TTO) and discrete choice experiments (DCEs) were undertaken to elicit preference scores. The feasibility of the EQ-PVT protocol was pilot tested in a sample of the population (n = 110). A hybrid regression model combining c-TTO and DCE data was used to estimate the final value set.

Results: In the pilot study, the acceptability of the tasks was good, and there were no special concerns with undertaking the c-TTO and DCE tasks. The coefficients generated from a hybrid model were logically consistent. The predicted values for the EQ-5D-5L ranged from -0.718 to 1. Level 5 anxiety/depression had the largest impact on utility decrement (-0.458), whereas level 5 self-care had the least impact (-0.222). The maximum predicted value beyond full health was 0.974 for the 11112 health state.

Conclusions: This is the first EQ-5D-5L valuation study in Africa using international valuation methods (c-TTO and DCE) and also the first using the EQ-PVT protocol to derive a value set. We expect that the availability of this value set will facilitate health technology assessment and health-related quality-of-life research and inform policy decision making in Ethiopia.

Keywords: EQ-5D-5L; Ethiopia; discrete choice experiment; health state valuation; time trade-off.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Ethiopia
  • Health Status*
  • Humans
  • Pilot Projects
  • Psychometrics / instrumentation
  • Psychometrics / methods
  • Psychometrics / standards*
  • Quality of Life / psychology*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Translating