Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 11 (11)

No Evidence of Mosquito Involvement in the Transmission of Equine Hepacivirus (Flaviviridae) in an Epidemiological Survey of Austrian Horses


No Evidence of Mosquito Involvement in the Transmission of Equine Hepacivirus (Flaviviridae) in an Epidemiological Survey of Austrian Horses

Marcha Badenhorst et al. Viruses.


Prevalence studies have demonstrated a global distribution of equine hepacivirus (EqHV), a member of the family Flaviviridae. However, apart from a single case of vertical transmission, natural routes of EqHV transmission remain elusive. Many known flaviviruses are horizontally transmitted between hematophagous arthropods and vertebrate hosts. This study represents the first investigation of potential EqHV transmission by mosquitoes. More than 5000 mosquitoes were collected across Austria and analyzed for EqHV ribonucleic acid (RNA) by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Concurrently, 386 serum samples from horses in eastern Austria were analyzed for EqHV-specific antibodies by luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) and for EqHV RNA by RT-qPCR. Additionally, liver-specific biochemistry parameters were compared between EqHV RNA-positive horses and EqHV RNA-negative horses. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted in comparison to previously published sequences from various origins. No EqHV RNA was detected in mosquito pools. Serum samples yielded an EqHV antibody prevalence of 45.9% (177/386) and RNA prevalence of 4.15% (16/386). EqHV RNA-positive horses had significantly higher glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) levels (p = 0.013) than control horses. Phylogenetic analysis showed high similarity between nucleotide sequences of EqHV in Austrian horses and EqHV circulating in other regions. Despite frequently detected evidence of EqHV infection in Austrian horses, no viral RNA was found in mosquitoes. It is therefore unlikely that mosquitoes are vectors of this flavivirus.

Keywords: arbovirus; flavivirus; hematophagous arthropod; hepacivirus A; hepatitis; insects; mosquito-borne virus; virus transmission.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Geographical locations of sampling sites. A map of Austria indicating mosquito collection sites and the properties of origin of sampled horses. Green mosquito-icons each represents the collection site of a minimum of one mosquito pool. Magenta horse-icons each represents a property where at least one horse tested equine hepacivirus (EqHV) RNA-positive, regardless of the EqHV antibody-status of the horses on these properties. Blue horse-icons each represents a property where all horses tested EqHV RNA-negative, but at least one horse tested EqHV antibody-positive. Black horse-icons each represents a property where all horses tested EqHV RNA-negative, as well as EqHV antibody-negative.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Maximum-likelihood phylogeny based on partial NS5B sequences of EqHV. In addition to sequences obtained from Austrian horses, the phylogenetic tree contains previously published complete genome sequences of EqHV retrieved from the GenBank database, as well as sequences of six isolates, which originated in France [12]. Different samples are identified with their accession number, country of origin and year of sampling or, if not applicable, year of publication. The analysis involved 45 nucleotide sequences. All positions containing gaps and missing data were eliminated, whereby a total of 258 positions were included in the final dataset. Bootstrap values <70% are not shown. The scale bar represents the number of substitutions per site. Black circles indicate samples obtained in this study.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 1 PubMed Central articles


    1. Smith D.B., Becher P., Bukh J., Gould E.A., Meyers G., Monath T., Muerhoff A.S., Pletnev A., Rico-Hesse R., Stapleton J.T., et al. Proposed update to the taxonomy of the genera Hepacivirus and Pegivirus within the Flaviviridae family. J. Gen. Virol. 2016;97:2894–2907. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.000612. - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Pfaender S., Brown R.J., Pietschmann T., Steinmann E. Natural reservoirs for homologs of hepatitis C virus. Emerg. Microbes Infect. 2014;3:e21. doi: 10.1038/emi.2014.19. - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Pfaender S., Cavalleri J.M., Walter S., Doerrbecker J., Campana B., Brown R.J., Burbelo P.D., Postel A., Hahn K., Anggakusuma Riebesehl N., et al. Clinical course of infection and viral tissue tropism of hepatitis C virus-like nonprimate hepaciviruses in horses. Hepatology. 2015;61:447–459. doi: 10.1002/hep.27440. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Badenhorst M., Tegtmeyer B., Todt D., Guthrie A., Feige K., Campe A., Steinmann E., Cavalleri J.M.V. First detection and frequent occurrence of Equine Hepacivirus in horses on the African continent. Vet. Microbiol. 2018;223:51–58. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.07.015. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Burbelo P.D., Dubovi E.J., Simmonds P., Medina J.L., Henriquez J.A., Mishra N., Wagner J., Tokarz R., Cullen J.M., Iadarola M.J., et al. Serology-enabled discovery of genetically diverse hepaciviruses in a new host. J. Virol. 2012;86:6171–6178. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00250-12. - DOI - PMC - PubMed