Trends in Dietary Nutrients by Demographic Characteristics and BMI among US Adults, 2003-2016

Nutrients. 2019 Nov 1;11(11):2617. doi: 10.3390/nu11112617.


Limited data were available on trends of US dietary nutrients especially for specific subgroups; Methods: Dietary intakes of energy and 36 kinds of nutrients were analyzed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2003 to 2016 and by age and sex, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and body mass index, which were evaluated by whether not they meet the dietary reference intakes (DRIs); Results: Significantly decreased trends were observed for carbohydrate, total sugars, fiber, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, vitamin B6, E, K, and choline, while increased trends were observed for saturated fatty acids, iron, zinc, copper, potassium, sodium, vitamin B1, B2, B12, C and folate DFE (as dietary folate equivalents). A decreased trend of exceeding the estimated energy requirement was found. Population with low socioeconomic status and non-Hispanic blacks accounted for the largest proportion not meeting DRIs for most of nutrients; Conclusions: Most dietary nutrients were improved among US adults from 2003 to 2016 but were still far from optimal levels. Populations with low socioeconomic status and non-Hispanic blacks should be paid more attention to improve their dietary nutrient intake.

Keywords: US adults; dietary nutrients; dietary reference intakes; temporal trend; the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • African Americans
  • Aged
  • Body Mass Index*
  • Diet / standards
  • Diet / trends*
  • Energy Intake
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrients / administration & dosage
  • Nutrition Policy
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Nutritional Requirements*
  • Social Class
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • United States
  • Young Adult