Gut Microbiota Modulation on Intestinal Mucosal Adaptive Immunity

J Immunol Res. 2019 Oct 3:2019:4735040. doi: 10.1155/2019/4735040. eCollection 2019.


The mammalian intestine harbors a remarkable number of microbes and their components and metabolites, which are fundamental for the instigation and development of the host immune system. The intestinal innate and adaptive immunity coordinate and interact with the symbionts contributing to the intestinal homeostasis through establishment of a mutually beneficial relationship by tolerating to symbiotic microbiota and retaining the ability to exert proinflammatory response towards invasive pathogens. Imbalance between the intestinal immune system and commensal organisms disrupts the intestinal microbiological homeostasis, leading to microbiota dysbiosis, compromised integrity of the intestinal barrier, and proinflammatory immune responses towards symbionts. This, in turn, exacerbates the degree of the imbalance. Intestinal adaptive immunity plays a critical role in maintaining immune tolerance towards symbionts and the integrity of intestinal barrier, while the innate immune system regulates the adaptive immune responses to intestinal commensal bacteria. In this review, we will summarize recent findings on the effects and mechanisms of gut microbiota on intestinal adaptive immunity and the plasticity of several immune cells under diverse microenvironmental settings.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity*
  • Animals
  • Biodiversity
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome* / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Immunity, Mucosal*
  • Immunomodulation*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / immunology*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism*
  • Metabolomics / methods
  • Receptors, Fc / immunology
  • Symbiosis
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / metabolism


  • IgA, secretory receptor
  • Receptors, Fc