Diabetic bone disease is a complication of type I and type II diabetes, both of which are increasing in the United States and elsewhere. Increased hip and foot fracture rates do not correlate well with changes in bone mineral density (BMD), whereas studies support the importance of collagen structure to bone strength. Extracellular lysyl oxidase (LOX) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of hydroxylysine and lysine residues in collagens resulting in aldehydes that subsequently form critically important biosynthetic crosslinks that stabilize functional collagens. Although LOX-dependent biosynthetic crosslinks in bone collagen are deficient in diabetic bone, the expression and regulation of bone LOXs in diabetes have not been comprehensively studied. Here, we found that LOX is profoundly downregulated in bone in diabetes. Moreover, we have identified a novel metabolic regulatory relationship that is dysregulated in diabetes using mouse models. Data indicate that the incretin (gastric hormone) known as glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) that is anabolic to osteoblasts strongly upregulates LOX, and that this regulation is disrupted in the streptozotocin-induced model of diabetes in mice. In vivo and in vitro studies support that diabetes results in elevated circulating peripheral dopamine, likely also derived from the gut, and is responsible for blocking GIP signaling and LOX levels in osteoblasts. Moreover, peripheral administration of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist amisulpride to diabetic mice restored trabecular bone structure to near normal and partially reversed downregulation of LOX. Taken together our data identifies a novel metabolic relationship between the gut-derived hormone GIP and bone-derived LOX, and points to the importance of LOX dysregulation in the pathology of diabetic bone disease. © 2019 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Keywords: ANALYSIS/QUANTITATION OF BONE, PRECLINICAL STUDIES; ANIMAL MODELS; BONE MATRIX, MOLECULAR PATHWAYS–REMODELING; BONE MODELING AND REMODELING, OSTEOPOROSIS; COLLAGEN; DISEASES AND DISORDERS OF/RELATED TO BONE, BONE QCT/μCT.
© 2019 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.